The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT), the rate of sinus membrane perforation in osteotome sinus floor elevation (OSFE) performed with and without a graft material. Thirty patients with 52 OSFE sites were included in the study. Patients were divided into the control group (OSFE performed without graft material) and test groups (OSFE performed with autograft or xenograft). The autograft was harvested from the maxillary tuberosity using bone forceps. The xenograft was a commercial product originating from bovine bone. Graft volume was measured using the water displacement method. CBCT was performed at the initial examination and immediately after surgery to measure the residual bone height and to evaluate the endo-sinus bone gain and membrane perforation. The rate of sinus membrane perforation was 15.4%. Of the 52 OSFE procedures, 26.9% were performed without grafting and 34.6% and 38.5% were performed with autografts and xenografts, respectively. Membrane perforation was significantly higher in the autograft group (P = .033). The median volume of graft materials was 0.3 mL. The difference in graft volume between the autograft and xenograft was not statistically significant (P = .768). The mean endo-sinus bone gain was 6.55 mm in patients without membrane perforation and 8.71 mm in patients with membrane perforation; this difference was statistically significant (P = .035). The volume and physical properties of graft materials are important factors in membrane perforation. Further clinical studies with larger and standardized samples are needed to confirm the effect of graft materials on sinus membrane perforation in OSFE.

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