The role of systemic diseases in the development and progression of peri-implantitis remains unclear and requires discussion from various perspectives. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate whether the type of systemic disease affects the onset time of peri-implantitis. The cohort consisted of patients who underwent implant maintenance evaluations between January 1998 and June 2020. Information on age, sex, history of periodontal disease, smoking habits, body mass index, systemic diseases, implant placement sites, and diagnosis of peri-implantitis were obtained. The relationships between the time of onset of peri-implantitis and the medical history of systemic diseases were determined statistically by applying the Kaplan-Meier analysis method and log-rank test. A total of 216 implants in 89 patients (34 male and 55 female) were included in this study. The average patient age was 53.9 ± 11.8 years at the first visit, and the mean duration of maintenance was 7 years and 4 months. A total of 43 patients had medical histories and were assigned to the systemic disease group. In this group, the overall prevalence of peri-implantitis was 25.4% (29 of 114 implants). The medical history of systemic diseases (odds ratio [OR], 6.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.37–19.9) and dental history of periodontitis (OR, 3.64; 95% CI, 1.25–10.6) were assessed as risk factors for peri-implantitis. A significant difference in the time of onset of peri-implantitis was confirmed between patients with systemic disease and healthy patients. Diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, and hypertension had a significant impact on the earlier onset of peri-implantitis.

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