This systematic review addressed the implant success rate after mandible reconstruction with vascularized fibula bone graft. Therefore, preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis guidelines were used to perform the systematic review, and the search included following databases: PubMed, Lilacs, Google Scholar, Open Gray, Science Direct and Cochrane. A search of medical subject headings (MeSH) and related terms (fibula) OR (vascularized) OR (microvascularized) AND (implant) OR (rehabilitation) OR (osseointegrated) AND (mandible) OR (jaw) OR (maxillofacial), without any language or time restrictions until October 2017 was carried out. The eligible studies primarily consisted of clinical cohorts designed to evaluate the feasibility of mandible reconstruction using vascularized fibula bone grafts and implant-supported rehabilitations, with a minimum observation period of 12 months. After screening, 13 eligible cohort studies for this review were selected (3 retrospective and 10 prospective). Of 285 vascularized fibular reconstructions, only 6 failures were reported with a success rate of approximately 98% after a mean follow-up period of 40 months. In total, 910 implants were placed in vascularized fibular grafts with a success rate of 92.6% (range, 82%–100%) after 40 months. Also, similar success rates for primary (95%; range, 93%–100%) and secondary (91%; range, 83%–100%) implant surgeries have been demonstrated. Considering risk factors, implant survival in irradiated patients was usually lower (76%; range, 38%–88%) than nonirradiated patients (90%; range, 83%–94%); however, it was significantly different in only 1 study. Alcohol and tobacco use has shown no significant association with implant failure in any study. Hence, implant placement in vascularized fibula bone graft presented similar success rates relative to native mandible bone rehabilitations.

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