Osseodensification is a novel technique based on nonsubtractive drilling to preserve and condense bone during osteotomy preparation. The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare osseodensification and conventional extraction drilling technique with regard to intraosseous temperatures, expansion of alveolar ridge width, and primary implant stability using different implant geometries: tapered and straight walled. A total of 45 implant sites were prepared in bovine ribs following osseodensification and conventional protocols. Changes in intraosseous temperatures were recorded at 3 depths using thermocouples, and ridge width was measured at 2 different depths before and after osseodensification preparations. The primary implant stability was measured using peak insertion torque and the implant stability quotient (ISQ) following placement of straight and tapered implants. A significant change in temperature was recorded during site preparation for all techniques tested but not at all depths. Osseodensification recorded higher mean temperatures (42.7°C) than conventional drilling, particularly at the midroot level. Statistically significant ridge expansion was observed at both the crestal and apical levels in the osseodensification group. The ISQ values were significantly higher only for tapered implants placed in osseodensification sites when compared with conventional drilling sites; however, there was no difference in the primary stability between tapered and straight implants within the osseodensification group. Within the limitations of the present pilot study, osseodensification was found to increase the primary stability of straight-walled implants without overheating the bone and significantly expanded the ridge width. However, further investigation is required to determine the clinical significance of the bone expansion created by this new technique.

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