This article seeks to provide the most relevant aspects of the etiology, prevention, and management of bleeding in routine implant surgery. A comprehensive and systematic electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases until June 2021. Further references of interest were retrieved from bibliographic lists of the selected articles and the “Related Articles” feature of PubMed. Eligibility criteria were papers about bleeding, hemorrhage, or hematoma associated with routine implant surgery on human subjects. Twenty reviews and 41 case reports fulfilled eligibility criteria and were included in the scoping review. Involved implants were mandibular in 37 and maxillary in 4 cases. The major number of bleeding complications was in the mandibular canine region. The most injured vessels were sublingual and submental arteries, due mainly to perforation of the lingual cortical plate. Time to bleeding occurred intraoperatively, at suturing, or postoperatively. The most reported clinical manifestations were swelling and elevation of the mouth floor and the tongue with partial or complete airway obstructions. First aid to manage airway obstruction was intubation and tracheostomy. For active bleeding control, gauze tamponade, manual or digital compression, hemostatic agents, and cauterization were applied. When conservative procedures failed, hemorrhage was controlled by intra- or extraoral surgical approaches to ligate injured vessels or by angiographic embolization. The present scoping review provides knowledge and evidence on the most relevant aspects of the etiology, prevention, and management of implant surgery bleeding complications.
Hemorrhagic Complications in Implant Surgery: A Scoping Review on Etiology, Prevention, and Management
Gerardo La Monaca, Nicola Pranno, Antonella Polimeni, Susanna Annibali, Stefano Di Carlo, Giorgio Pompa, Maria Paola Cristalli; Hemorrhagic Complications in Implant Surgery: A Scoping Review on Etiology, Prevention, and Management. J Oral Implantol 1 August 2023; 49 (4): 414–427. doi: https://doi.org/10.1563/aaid-joi-D-22-00130
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