The placement of implants in the anterior maxillary and mandibular region requires esthetic proficiency and surgical finesse. It is important to consider the esthetic outcome while avoiding any type of nerve injury for the patient. In this literature review, anatomical structures of the anterior jaw were reviewed from a gross anatomical and radiographic interpretation. A discussion on the frequency of neurosensory complications for patients as a result of nerve damage in this region was evaluated. The purpose of this literature review was to educate the dental surgeon to consider the anterior jaw’s neurological structures when performing procedures like implant surgery. The mandibular incisive canal (MIC) presents as an extension of the inferior alveolar canal that runs between the mental foramina. The MIC is a structure that is easily depicted in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging and is present in most subjects in gross anatomical studies. The anterior loop of the mental nerve is another structure that is discussed in this paper. Although its structure is accurately depicted in CBCT images, its anatomical variations in patients can make implant treatment planning difficult. The maxilla contains 2 neurovascular structures that were discussed. First, the nasopalatine canal and its relation and impact on implant placement is evaluated. Case reports are reviewed that outline a prophylactic enucleation and bone grafting of the canal prior to implant placement. Second, the canalis sinuosus, which houses the anterior superior alveolar nerve, is of concern during implant placement in the lateral incisor region. Case reports involving nerve damage with follow-up are discussed.

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