Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are commonly prescribed to treat mental health disorders, and previously published literature, although scarce, has shown a significant association between SSRI use and dental implant failure. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether such an association exists and, if so, to determine its strength. Reviewers performed an extensive search of the literature, last accessed in June 2022 in PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases using MeSH terms. Retrospective and prospective observational cohort and experimental studies evaluating the role of SSRI on dental implant failure among individuals ≥18 years of age, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months after implant placement, were deemed eligible. The search yielded a total of 6 eligible studies, all retrospective cohorts. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical software R 4.1.3. Results showed higher implant failure rates among SSRI users vs non-SSRI users at both the patient level (5.6%–19.6% vs 1.9%–8.0%) and the implant level (5.6%–12.5% vs 1.9%–5.8%). The pooled relative risk (RR) of implant failure was more than double among SSRI users at the patient level (pooled RR: 2.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68–3.55, P < .01) and at the implant level (pooled RR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.74–3.15, P < .01) compared with non-SSRI users. DerSimonian and Laird estimates showed homogeneity of the studies (I2 = 0%, P > .05), and funnel plots and Egger’s test determined no publication bias across all selected studies at both patient and implant levels. In conclusion, SSRI use is significantly associated with higher implant failure. Providers should be aware of this association and educate patients on the risk of implant therapy when obtaining informed consent.

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