Routine use of antibiotics for dental implant installation is widely applied in dental practice to prevent postoperative infection and implant loss. However, the effectiveness and necessity of such protocols have not been consensual in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on survival of dental implants placed in clinically healthy patients by unexperienced operators. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Ninety patients who received between 2 and 4 dental implants by unexperienced operators were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly allocated in 2 groups. For the antibiotic group (n = 47), patients received 1 g of preoperative amoxicillin; in the placebo group (n = 43), patients received preoperative placebo administration. Each patient was evaluated preoperatively, 2 days, and 7 days postoperatively. Factors evaluated were mouth opening amplitude, assessment of referred pain through a visual analogue scale, and characteristic signs of infection (presence of fistula, ulceration in the surgical wound, tissue necrosis at the edges of the wound, dehiscence of the surgical flap, and presence of purulent exudate in the surgical wound). Implant survival was evaluated until 90 days postsurgical procedure. Results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in postoperative healing, swelling, and pain. However, more loss of dental implants was observed in the placebo group (14.9% vs 2.3%). Use of antibiotic prophylaxis reduced implant loss that was previously placed by unexperienced operators.

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