Alveolar bone quality at the implantation site affects the initial stability of dental implant treatment. However, the relationship between bone quality and osseointegration has yet to be evaluated. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effect of bone quality on dental implant stability in osseointegration formation changes. Patients underwent computed tomography imaging before dental implantation at the posterior. Hounsfield units were measured at the platform, middle, and tip sites. Implant stability was measured using resonance frequency analysis immediately and at 3 months postoperatively, in which the difference in implant stability quotients (ISQ) was defined as the change between primary and secondary fixation. In multiple regression analysis, the dependent variable was the change between the immediate and secondary fixations. We included 81 implants that conformed to the criteria. Primary fixation yielded the following results: R2 = 0.117, F = 2.529, and P = .047. The difference between the maxilla and mandible of the implantation site (P = .02) and the platform-site Hounsfield units (P = .019) were identified as significant factors. The following results were obtained regarding the change between the immediate and secondary fixation: R2 = 0.714, F = 40.964, and P < .001. The difference between diameter (P = .008) and the immediate ISQ (P < .001) were identified as significant factors. Overall, the bone quality of the implantation site affected initial fixation; however, it had limited effect on secondary fixation. Our findings clarified the period where bone quality affects dental implant treatment and is expected to advance dental implant treatment.

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