The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX) as an adjunctive therapy to mechanical debridement in the treatment of peri-implant diseases. Five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing mechanical debridement combined with CHX to mechanical debridement alone for patients with peri-implant disease were identified. The trial investigators evaluated factors indicating inflammatory levels, including bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Six RCTs with 207 patients were ultimately included in this review. Low- to moderate-quality evidence demonstrated that the adjunctive CHX therapy had no significant effect on BOP reduction within 1 month (mean difference [MD], 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.06 to 0.25), 3 to 4 months (MD, 0.06; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.15), and 6 to 8 months (MD, 0.06; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.14) follow-up. Significant differences in PD reduction and CAL gain were also not found. However, one subgroup analysis revealed a significant result for the use of CHX solution, but it was clinically slight (MD, 0.09; 95%CI, 0.01 to 0.18). Based on available evidence, adding CHX to mechanical debridement, compared to mechanical debridement alone, did not significantly enhance the clinical results. Therefore, clinicians should consider the negligible effect of adjunctive CHX.

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