The aim of this study was to measure the effect of drilling speed on heat generation in the cortical bone, on primary and secondary implant stability of implants and on early and late bone healing with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Sixty implants were placed in the iliac crest of six sheep in order to form 5 different drilling protocols: 50rpm without saline cooling, and 400rpm, 800rpm, 1200rpm and 2000rpm with saline cooling.  Simultaneous cortical bone temperature and primary stability at the time of placement; secondary stability and the ratio between relative bone and tissue volume (BV/TV) in 2D and 3D in micro-CT analysis were evaluated after 4 and 8 weeks. The 50rpm group had the highest cortical bone temperature and the longest operation duration with the highest primary stability. Slightly higher values of secondary stability (T2) and subsequent 2D and 3D BV/TV values were found in 1200 rpm with irrigation at 8 weeks. All groups had sufficient ISQ values at 8 weeks for loading although the micro-CT analysis showed varying percentages of bone tissue around implants. The influence of drill speed for implant osteotomy and its irrigation is minimal when it comes to changes in temperature of the cortical bone, primary and secondary implant stability and BV/TV.

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