The objective was to compare the efficiency of probiotic (PT) versus antibiotic therapy (AT) as adjuvants to non-surgical-mechanical debridement (NSMD) in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis (Pi-M). Volunteers with Pi-M were encompassed. Therapeutically, patients were randomly divided into 3-groups: (a) Group-1: NSMD + PT; (b) Group-2: NSMD + AT; and (c) Group-3: NSMD alone. Peri-implant plaque index (P.I), bleeding on probing (B.O.P), probing depth (P.D) and crestal-bone-loss (C.B.L) were recorded at baseline and at 3-and 6-months follow-up. P<0.05 was selected as the indicator of statistical significance. Forty-two male individuals (14, 14 and 14 in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively) were included. At 3- and 6-months of follow-up, P.I (P<0.01), B.O.P (P<0.01) and P.D (P<0.01) were higher in Group-2 than Group-1. At 3-months of follow-up, P.I (P<0.01), B.O.P (P<0.01) and P.D (P<0.01) were higher in Group-3 than Group-2. At 6-months of follow-up, P.I, B.O.P and P.D were comparable in groups 2 and 3. In Group-3, P.I, B.O.P and P.D were comparable with the respective baseline values at 6-months of follow-up. The C.B.L in all groups remained unchanged up to 6-months of follow-up. The NSMD with adjuvant PT is more effective than adjunct AT in the treatment of Pi-M for up to 3-months.

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