Actinomyces spp. are members of normal oral flora that may give rise to a rare disease— oral actinomycosis . Here we present a case of early implant failure associated with actinomycosis in an otherwise -healthy 43-year-old female and the treatment adopted following explantation. Clinically, one month after the implant placement, the peri-implant soft tissues were hyperplastic and associated with an excessive tissue reaction, bleeding, suppuration, deep probing depth , and implant mobility at #19 and #20 implants. Both implants were removed and all granulomatous tissues were thoroughly debrided. Histopathological examination revealed signs of acute ulcerative inflammatory reaction and Actinomyces colonies. The patient was prescribed short-term oral penicillins. After six months following explantation, the deficient bone was augmented with using a combination of absorbable collagen membrane, autogenous block and xenograft. The patient was followed up for one year ; and subsequently, two implants were reinserted at the same positions. The patient was followed up and no recurrences were observed. Implant failure due to actinomycosis is an extremely rare condition , and a definitive diagnosis is therefore essential for successful treatment.

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