The mandibular interforaminal region has been considered safe for surgical procedures; nevertheless, the risk of injury to neurovascular structures, such as the mental foramen (MF) and its related structures (anterior loop [AL] and lingual foramina [LF]) should not be overlooked. The study aimed to evaluate the relative risk of injury to these structures during surgical procedures in the anterior region of the mandible based on CBCT scans. A retrospective cross-sectional and observational study was performed on 250 CBCTs from adults (18-69 years) with dentate jaws. Linear measurements of the MF, AL, and LF were evaluated to estimate the risk of injury to these structures during chin-related surgical procedures. The most frequent distance between the base of the mandible (BM) and MF was 8mm (30.2%). In addition, 20.4% of the CTs had 6 mm from the vestibular cortical bone to the LF. The commonly found measurement from LF to the apex of the nearest tooth was 7 mm (24.0%). 64.2% of the CTs showed a 2mm distance between the most distal point of the dental implant site to the most anterior point of the AL. Safety distances for genioplasty techniques (MF to mandible base > 6mm, 96.6% [CI 95% 95.0- 98.2%]) were observed. Considering the 5mm cut-off point between the lower limit of a hypothetical bone graft and the chin (Hunt, Jovanovic 1999), 65.4% (CI 95% 58.9-71.9%) of CTs were within this distance. Regarding the safety margin of 8mm (Pommer et al., 2008), 85.6% (CI 95% 80.8-90.4%) were up to this value. This study found safety margins for genioplasty and chin bone grafting surgical techniques that adopt a 5mm cut-off point. Further similar studies assessing other surgical techniques and employing larger samples from different geographical origins may contribute to this field of investigation.

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