When considering placing dental implants in atrophic edentulous sites, there may be inadequate site width and little or no vertical bone loss. Any of several surgical procedures can augment these sites. Extracortical augmentation is done by applying graft material against the cortical bone. This technique expects progenitor cells to migrate outside the bony ridge's confines and form new bone. Another method entails ridge splitting and expansion to create space for osteogenesis and, when possible, implant placement. This may be a better method for horizontal ridge augmentation. The ridge is split, separating the facial and lingual cortices for a complete bone fracture. The patient’s osseous cells then can migrate into the created space from the exposed medullary bone to form bone. The technique can be preferably performed flapless so the intact periosteum maintains a blood supply to ensure appropriate healing.

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