Abstract

Osteocompression is a physiologic principle that has been clinically practiced in orthopedics since the early 1900s. In dentistry, controlled functional osteocompression is the compaction created by the tapping procedure and bone lamination achieved by a sinusoidal screw implant design providing physiologic stimulation due to streaming potentials. Functionally, there is always an applied force acting on bone modified by an implant design, and there is always a resisting force acting on the implant through the viscoelastic properties of trabecular structure. Through biomechanical events in bone, osseous tissue can be stimulated within physiologic limitations by implant design to develop along the lines of compressive forces dependent on the implant load-bearing area to sustain equilibrium. At the cellular level, these biomechanical events act on the cells through a phenomenon known as streaming potentials. This is an electrochemical potential created by the flow of extracellular fluid past a positively charged cell surface.  Streaming potentials have a stimulating effect on osteoblasts and osteocytes. This stimulation under acceptable physiologic limits translates to an ordered deposition of osseous tissue that aids in the support of these compressive forces.  As a sinusoidal thread design, the LaminOss osteocompressive immediate-load implant (Impladent Ltd, Holliswood, NY) has shown in animal histologic observation 2.5 times greater bone lamination achieved by the function of osteocompression due to the benefits of streaming potentials created by the LaminOss implant design. No evidence of bone necrosis was observed by any of the eight implants.

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