Potential host sites often present less than optimal dimensions or quality than are required for implant placement. This paper emphasizes a variety of surgical technique designed to optimize these areas. There are a number of anatomic sites available to serve as donors for autogenous bone grafting. They include the tibial plateau, the calvarium, the mandibular rami, the iliac crests and the symphysis of the mandible. Although each has the potential of presenting risks, the symphysis serves a singularly beneficial source. The techniques of harvesting bone, and utilizing it for a variety of grafting procedures is described, the benefits of such utilization are emphasized and the risks of such operations are reviewed.