This article focuses on the materials used for the regeneration, rather than repair, of the osseous support needed to anchor both teeth and implants. Once the bone was supportive, but now it is insufficient and must be restored. Specifically, the article examines different materials that aid in regeneration, as well as ones that do not. The pros and cons of osteoinduction and osteoconduction are compared. Autogenous, allographic, alloplastic, and xenographic materials are delineated and their intended purpose is described. These materials build the foundation of osseous support toward a functional future.