Patients with moderate to severe atrophy challenge the surgeon to discover alternative ways to use existing bone or resort to augmenting the patient with autogenous or alloplastic bone materials. Many procedures have been suggested for these atrophied maxillae before implant placement, which include Le Fort I maxillary downfracture, onlay bone grafts and maxillary sinus graft procedures. A zygomatic implant can be an effective device for rehabilitation of the severely resorbed maxilla. If zygomatic implants are used, onlay bone grafting or sinus augmentation would likely not be necessary. The purpose of this article is to review the developments that have taken place in zygomatic implant treatment over years, including anatomic information for installing the zygomatic implants, implant placement techniques, stabilization, and prosthodontic procedures.
Auricular defects can result from tumor resection, congenital malformations, and trauma. These defects lack hard or soft tissue undercuts, and prosthesis retention is obtained primarily by the use of skin adhesives. There are significant disadvantages to the use of skin adhesives.The margins of the facial prosthesis may be damaged by repeated application and removal of the adhesive, and occasionally a patient will have a toxic skin reaction. The retentive capacity of adhesives may be insufficient in mobile tissues or in moist environments. The presence of hair also complicates the use of skin adhesives. The use of craniofacial titanium implants for restoring auricular defects may provide many benefits. The quality of retention provided far exceeds that obtained with adhesives, and skin-penetrating osseointegrated implants have demonstrated an excellent level of predictability when placed in bone in the auricular area.The aim of this paper is to present concept and principles of maxillofacial implants, history, literature review , advantages and disadvantages, considerations in treatment planning, finally the treatment phases of an implant-supported auricular prosthesis in particular and prospective developments for ear prosthesis.