The present study compared early dental implant failure rates between patients with and without orthodontic treatment before dental implantation. The data of adults who had undergone dental implantation between January 2007 and December 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 124 subjects with 255 implants were divided into a treatment group (46 subjects, 85 teeth) consisting of patients who had undergone implant surgery after orthodontic treatment and a control group of patients who had not undergone preimplant orthodontic treatment. Implants that failed before permanent crown fabrication were defined as failures. No significant differences in gender or age were found between the treatment group and controls. No significant differences were found in implant failure rates in either jaw between the treatment and control groups. However, the failure rate was still higher in the treatment group (14.81%) than in the control group (3.28%) for the maxilla. Results of this study demonstrate an increased implant failure rate only in the maxilla of patients who underwent orthodontic treatment before dental implantation, especially implant surgery combined with a sinus lift procedure. Further study with a larger sample size and longer follow-up period is necessary to confirm results of the present study and identify other confounding factors.