Streptococcus mutans is able to form a high-affinity biofilm on material surfaces. S mutans has also been detected around infected implants. Bioactive glasses (BAGs) have been shown to possess antibacterial effects against S mutans and other microorganisms. This in vitro study was performed to investigate the influence of BAG air abrasion on S mutans biofilm on sandblasted and acid-etched titanium surfaces. Sandblasted and acid-etched commercially pure titanium discs were used as substrates for bacteria (n = 107). The discs were immersed in an S mutans solution and incubated for 21 hours to form an S mutans biofilm. Twenty colonized discs were subjected to air abrasion with Bioglass 45S5 (45S5 BAG), experimental zinc oxide containing BAG (Zn4 BAG), and inert glass. After the abrasion, the discs were incubated for 5 hours in an anaerobic chamber followed by an assessment of viable S mutans cells. Surface morphology was evaluation using scanning electron microscopy (n = 12). The thrombogenicity of the glass particle–abraded discs (n = 75) was evaluated spectrophotometrically using whole-blood clotting measurement at predetermined time points. Air abrasion with 45S5 and Zn4 BAG eradicated S mutans biofilm. Significantly fewer viable S mutans cells were found on discs abraded with the 45S5 or Zn4 BAGs compared with the inert glass ( P < .001). No significant differences were found in thrombogenicity since blood clotting was achieved for all substrates at 40 minutes. Air abrasion with BAG particles is effective in the eradication of S mutans biofilm from sandblasted and acid-etched titanium surfaces. Zn4 and 45S5 BAGs had similar biofilm-eradicating effects, but Zn4 BAG could be more tissue friendly. In addition, the steady release of zinc ions from Zn4 may enhance bone regeneration around the titanium implant and may thus have the potential to be used in the treatment of peri-implantitis. The use of either BAGs did not enhance the speed of blood coagulation.