The present study focused on prosocial behavior among Chilean adolescents, and its associations with social status and Machiavellianism. Considering classrooms as a social context in which interpersonal relationships unfold, we also analyzed the effects of friendship network density, degree of peer victimization, and peer norms concerning prosocial behavior on the associations of prosocial behavior with Machiavellianism and social status. Participants were 451 9th and 10th grade students from four schools in Santiago, Chile, who completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that lower Machiavellianism and higher social status were associated positively with prosocial behavior. Classroom characteristics qualified these associations: higher victimization rates enhanced the association between social preference and prosocial behavior, whereas stronger social norms concerning prosocial behavior and sparser classroom friendship networks weakened the negative association between Machiavellianism and prosocial behavior. Results are discussed in light of previous findings, theoretical frameworks, and particularities of the Chilean context.

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