We describe a new frog species of the megadiverse genus Pristimantis from the Chapada Diamantina, a regional designation of the Espinhaço mountain range in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. We assign the new species to the genus Pristimantis, P. conspicillatus group, based on its phylogenetic position. This is the second rupicolous species of Pristimantis and the fourth species inhabiting northeastern Brazil. The new species is characterized by the following combination of characters: 1) dorsum background color light brown to yellowish-brown, maculated with blackish-brown marks, resembling a granite rock surface; 2) dorsum granular; 3) venter areolate; 4) dentigerous process of the vomer ovoid; 5) snout rounded or truncate in dorsal view; 6) snout rounded in profile; 7) dorsolateral folds absent; 8) finger fringes absent; 9) toe fringes weakly developed; 10) double, poorly developed nuptial pads; 11) vocal slits present in the male; 12) advertisement call composed of one note; 13) call duration 0.011–0.086 s; 14) dominant frequency varying from 2.41 to 3.49 kHz; and 15) decreasing amplitude modulation from the beginning to the end of call. We recovered the new species outside the clade containing the other three nominal species of Pristimantis from northeastern Brazil, as the sister species of P. gaigei, a species from Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia. The new species seems to be restricted to the high-elevation areas (870–1,800 m a.s.l.) of the Chapada Diamantina, Central Bahia, Brazil. Both the genus Pristimantis and the P. conspicillatus group still lack morphological synapomorphies, and a thorough systematic review based on a stringent phylogenetic hypothesis is necessary for a better understanding of the evolution of these important lineages of Neotropical frogs.