The genus Proceratophrys currently comprises 40 species, of which five are distributed within the Caatinga domain and associated phytophysiognomies along northeastern Brazil. During field surveys at high altitudinal sites in Boqueirão da Onça region, northern Bahia state, we collected individuals of Proceratophrys that could not be assigned to any species currently known to occur within the Caatinga, which we describe herein. The new species can be diagnosed from remaining congeners based on vocalization, adult and tadpole morphology, and is also supported by molecular data (mitochondrial 16S, cytochrome b, and nuclear rhodopsin). We recovered the new species nested in the clade composed of species distributed within the Caatinga domain and associated phytophysiognomies, exhibiting a minimum of 7% of genetic divergence for the 16S gene in comparison to all its congeners. The new species seems to be restricted to high altitude locations (above 800 m) at the Boqueirão da Onça region, which represents the largest remaining contiguous Caatinga remnant (∼986,000 ha) being classified as of extreme biological importance.

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