Since the 1940s, the large animal model to assess novel causal prophylactic antimalarial agents has been the Plasmodium cynomolgi sporozoite-infected Indian-origin rhesus monkey. In 2009 the model was reassessed with 3 clinical standards: primaquine (PQ), tafenoquine (TQ), and atovaquone-proguanil. Both control monkeys were parasitemic on day 8 post-sporozoite inoculation on day 0. Primaquine at 1.78 mg base/kg/day on days (−1) to 8 protected 1 monkey and delayed parasitemia patency of the other monkey to day 49. Tafenoquine at 6 mg base/kg/day on days (−1) to 1 protected both monkeys. However, atovaquone-proguanil at 10 mg atovaquone/kg/day on days (−1) to 8 did not protect either monkey and delayed patency only to days 18–19. Primaquine and TQ at the employed regimens are proposed as appropriate doses of positive control drugs for the model at present.

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