This paper aims to resolve the dual composition of the triakid shark–hosted tetraphyllidean genus Calliobothrium—an issue that has been recognized for over a decade. As it stands, this genus includes a number of large species with laciniate proglottids, most of which bear 3 suckers at the anterior margin of each bothridium, but it also includes a number of species that lack proglottid laciniations and bear only a single sucker per bothridium, most of which are relatively small. Discovery of 2 new species, 1 of each form, parasitizing the whitespot smoothhound shark, Mustelus palumbes, off South Africa, prompted the first molecular analysis of the genus. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of 28S rDNA (D1–D3) sequence data generated for specimens of both new species as well as of 2 known species of the laciniate form (Calliobothrium australis and Calliobothrium cf. verticillatum) and 3 known species of the non-laciniate form (Calliobothrium violae, Calliobothrium riseri, and Calliobothrium barbarae) confirmed the reciprocal monophyly of the 2 clades, supporting establishment of a new genus. Because the type of Calliobothrium, C. verticillatum, is of the laciniate form, Symcallio n. gen., with Symcallio peteri n. gen., n. sp., from M. palumbes described as its type, is established to house members of the non-laciniate clade. The 11 described species consistent with this form are transferred to the new genus. A new species of the laciniate clade, Calliobothrium euzeti n. sp., is described from M. palumbes, and a revised diagnosis of Calliobothrium is presented.

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