The chewing louse fauna of pigeons and doves in Japan is reviewed based on published records and new collections. An updated checklist of the chewing lice of Japanese pigeons and doves is provided, and 3 new species are described: Columbicola asukae n. sp. and Coloceras nakamurai n. sp., both from Columba janthina Temminck, 1830 (Japanese wood pigeon), and Columbicola lemoinei n. sp. from Treron formosae permagnus Stejneger, 1887, and Treron formosae medioximus (Bangs, 1901) (whistling green-pigeons). This checklist includes data on the first records of Coloceras chinense (Kellogg and Chapman, 1902), Coloceras piriformis (Tendeiro, 1969), and Columbicola guimaraesi Tendeiro, 1965, in Japan. New host records of Hohorstiella sp. from Columba janthina and Treron formosae permagnus, and Coloceras sp. from Treron sieboldii sieboldii (Temminck, 1835) (white-bellied green-pigeon) are provided.