Morphological and genetic data on the larvae of Anisakidae parasitizing the sandperches Pseudopercis numida and Pinguipes brasilianus were recorded from Cabo Frio, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23°S, 42°W). Twenty-five specimens of P. numida and 25 specimens of P. brasilianus were necropsied. The 352 larvae collected included 1 Anisakis sp., 344 Hysterothylacium sp., and 7 Raphidascaris sp. We present mtDNA sequence data for Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp., and we sequenced the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Hysterothylacium sp. and Raphidascaris sp. The morphological and genetic profiles confirmed the identification of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860). Hysterothylacium sp. and Raphidascaris sp. were not identified to the species level due to the absence of similar sequences for adult parasites. The mtDNA sequence of Hysterothylacium sp. from P. numida showed a high similarity to the sequence of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum. However, a phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the presence of different clades under the same name as the larval H. deardorffoverstreetorum. Pseudopercis numida is a new host record for A. typica.