Pentadecane is an organic compound that is made up of primarily carbon and hydrogen atoms. Pentadecane is a floral volatile found in many different plants and essential oils and also in crude extracts of some plants, and it shows antimicrobial activity. This study investigated in vitro effects of pentadecane in Leishmania infantum parasites and found that it decreases growth by 86 ± 2% both in promastigotes (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 65.3 μM) and in amastigotes (IC50 = 60.5 μM), resulting in a reduction of macrophage infection; growth inhibition was 77% at 300 μM. Analysis of propidium iodide incorporation in L. infantum, treated with pentadecane at 48 hr, suggested that cells were arresting in the sub-G0/G1 and G1 phases of the cell cycle, whereas cytotoxicity assay of pentadecane in immortalized cells lines DH82 and U937 and in primary epithelial cells of Cercopiteco showed that it caused negligible cytotoxic effect. This study shows that pentadecane has antimicrobial activity against L. infantum parasites in in vitro culture.