Austrodiplostomum compactum from Nannopterum brasilianus, and its metacercaria from Geophagus sp. and Oreochromis mossambicus captured (1979) at its type locality, Valencia Lake, Venezuela, by the author, are redescribed. The adult is characterized by its large body size, and an oral sucker smaller than the pharynx. The metacercaria has a similar body size as the adult, and the small genital primordia occupy 4.1–7.3% of body length. Experimental infections in chickens with metacercariae of Diplostomulum mordax from brains of Odonthestes bonariensis, captured (2015) at Dique Paso de las Piedras, near Bahia Blanca City, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, resulted in 10 adults 5 days postexposure. These adults correspond to Austrodiplostomum mordax as described from N. brasilianus at Lacombe Lagoon, Buenos Aires Province, and differ from A. compactum in their smaller body size, and an oral sucker larger than the pharynx. The metacercaria has a similar body size as the adult and differs mainly in that the larger genital primordia occupy 11.6–13.8% of body length. The status of earlier published Austrodiplostomum species in the American continent is discussed in view of available morphological and molecular data. A lectotype of A. mordax is here designated, and Austrodiplostomum ostrowskiae is considered as a new synonym of A. compactum.

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