Two cryptic species of haploporid digeneans belonging in Saccocoelioides are described from Costa Rica: one from a poeciliid fish, Poecilia gillii, and the other from a characid fish, Astyanax aeneus. Traditional morphological features are examined and found to be largely inefficient for differentiating among the new species and 20 New World congeners. Comparison of ribosomal DNA sequences among the 2 new species, 2 North American, 4 Middle American, and 3 South American species of Saccocoelioides, including the type-species Saccocoelioides nanii from Argentina and Saccocoelioides sogandaresi from Texas, is effective in differentiating among these species. A Bayesian inference analysis is conducted using a concatenated alignment of the same 2 ribosomal gene regions from 35 species belonging in the Haploporoidea and rooted by the atractotrematid Isorchis anomalus. The analysis provides stronger support for a close relationship between species in Saccocoelioides and Intromugil; thus, Intromugil is transferred from the Waretrematinae to the Chalcinotrematinae. Additionally, interrelationships among 11 species of Saccocoelioides are resolved and reveal a distinct genetic rift suggesting the presence of 2 distinct lineages within the genus, 1 containing the type-species and the other containing a group of species that more closely resemble other genera in the subfamily. Taxonomy of Saccocoelioides is discussed, and observations made during the present study justify taking several taxonomic actions: new combinations are proposed for Saccocoelioides tilapiae n. comb., formerly in the now-defunct Culuwiya, and Saccocoelioides ruedasueltensis n. comb., formerly in Chalcinotrema; Saccocoelioides guaporense nomen novem is proposed for Lecithobotrioides elongatus; Saccocoelioides papernai is considered a junior subjective synonym of Saccocoelioides overstreeti; Saccocoelioides godoyi is considered a junior subjective synonym of Saccocoelioides szidati; Saccocoelioides magnorchis and Saccocoelioides saccodontis are considered species inquirendae; and Saccocoelioides adelae is considered a nomen nudum. Four new hosts are reported for Saccocoelioides cichlidorum: Amphilophus lyonsi, Amatitlania nigrofasciatus, Amatitlania septemfasciatus, and Hypsophrys nicaraguensis. Molecular data call into question some existing species identifications in Saccocoelioides and reveal that molecular tools combined with traditional taxonomy are required for accurately identifying species in the genus. Twenty-two species of Saccocoelioides are formally accepted, but it is noted that as new molecular data become available, some of these species may be transferred to other genera in the subfamily.

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