Parasitic nematodes affecting the respiratory system of cats are gaining much attention in the scientific community and new knowledge has recently been acquired on their epizootiology, biology, and clinical aspects. In particular, in the past few years different studies have indicated that the metastrongyloid lungworm Troglostrongylus brevior can be vertically transmitted in cats, although information on its basic biology is still poor. The present paper describes a case of troglostrongylosis in a litter of 3 suckling kittens, with a focus on anatomo-pathological and biological features of the infection in 2 of these 3 animals. The third kitten survived the infection and clinical and therapeutic aspects are presented. New insights into the transmission and biology of T. brevior are discussed along with potential strategies for an efficacious treatment and control of this life-threatening parasitosis of cats.