Serological tests are needed to estimate the prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in endemic rural areas. The predictive value of serum antibody levels to diagnose porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis (NC) was herein assessed by ELISA using serum samples from 247 backyard pigs (141 without cysticercosis and 106 with cysticercosis) and 183 human subjects (116 non-NC subjects and 67 NC patients) in central Mexico diagnosed by necropsy and computed tomography, respectively. A sensitivity of 77.3 and 92.5% and a specificity of 88.6 and 100% were found to diagnose porcine and human cysticercosis, respectively. The prevalence of porcine and human cysticercosis in the state of Morelos was estimated by ELISA. Anti-cysticercal antibodies were found in 8.4 and 19.02% of assayed sera from 1,811 humans and 804 pigs, respectively. Marginalization and living in the eastern region were risk factors for humans, whereas free-roaming, medium marginalization levels and living in Sierra de Huautla were risk factors for pigs. These results clearly evidence the persistence of cysticercosis transmission and neurocysticercosis in a region neighboring Mexico City, pointing out the need to apply effective measures already available for its control.

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