Rhadinorhynchus hiansiSoota and Bhattacharya, 1981, has remained unknown since its original incomplete description from 2 male specimens collected from the flat needlefish Ablennes hians Valenciennes (Belonidae) off Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Recent collections of fishes along the Pacific coast of Vietnam in 2016 and 2017 produced many specimens of the same species from the striped bonito Sarda orientalis Temminck and Schlegel (Scombridae) off the southern Pacific coast of Vietnam at Nha Trang. We describe females for the first time, assign a female allotype status, and provide an expanded description of males from a larger collection completing missing information on hooks and hook roots, receptacle, lemnisci, cement glands, Saefftigen's pouch, and trunk spines. Specimens of R. hiansi characteristically have no dorsal spines in the posterior field of trunk spines and a long proboscis with 36–48 dorso-ventrally differentiated proboscis hooks per row becoming progressively smaller posteriorly then increasing in size near the posterior end to a maximum at the posterior-most ring. Trunk, testes, and lemnisci in our specimens were considerably larger than those reported in the original description, but the proboscis was relatively smaller. The females had long reproductive system and corrugated elliptic eggs without polar prolongation of fertilization membrane. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) demonstrates high levels of calcium and phosphorus in large gallium cut hooks and high levels of sulfur in tip cuts of large and small hooks and in spines. This EDXA pattern is a characteristic fingerprint of R. hiansi. The molecular profile of R. hiansi is described from 18S rDNA and COI genes, and phylogenetic relationships with most closely related species are discussed.

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