The Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, is a small cetacean species found on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America from Honduras to Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The nematode Halocercus brasiliensis infects this cetacean, resulting in lung pathologies and death. The present study aimed to conduct a morphological and morphometric study of specimens of H. brasiliensis collected from S. guianensis from the coast of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. For this study, 7 dolphins were collected and examined for the presence of lung parasites. Nematodes were collected and processed for light microscopy, and lung fragments were processed for histological analysis. The nematodes were identified as H. brasiliensis according to their morphology and morphometry. The histopathological analysis revealed mineralization of the bronchiolar cartilage and inflammatory process. The parasitic infections by H. brasiliensis in S. guianensis can contribute to the debilitating status of these cetaceans, resulting in their stranding and accidental capture in fishing nets.

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