The genus Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 is one of the most speciose group of nematodes, parasites of freshwater fishes, with approximately 103 species described worldwide. Twenty-two species have been recorded in the Americas, 14 of them in Mexico. In this paper we describe a new species of Rhabdochona on the basis of light and scanning electron microscopy and molecular tools. Rhabdochona adentata n. sp. was recovered from the gallbladder of the freshwater Oaxaca killifish, Profundulus oaxacae (Meek, 1902) (Profundulidae) captured in the Río Grande, State of Oaxaca, Mexico. Rhabdochona adentata n. sp. differs markedly from its congeners by possessing an unusual prostom lacking anterior teeth, small simple deirids, and the location of the excretory pore at the level of the union of the muscular and glandular esophagus. Sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid and the D2 + D3 domains of the large ribosomal subunit (28S) were obtained from 3 specimens and were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses. Phylogenetic analyses using COI and 28S genes recovered 1 new lineage of Rhabdochona. The new species is described on the basis of a detailed morphological study. This parasite represents the first species of Rhabdochona without prostomal teeth and with a different site of infection, the gallbladder.