Species of wild birds, like all wild animals, have different levels of specialization in their ecological niches, thus being classified into specialists when they have narrower ecological niches, and generalists when they have wider ecological niches and they are adaptable to different environments. Specialist bird species, which depend on very specific biotopes and are very sensitive to changes in their habitats, are often reported as bioindicators of natural ecosystems because disappearance or reduction of the population of these species reveals changes in an ecosystem (Sick, 1997; Odum,1998; Morganti et al., 2019).

The presence and abundance of a specialist species in an environment is associated with a well-conserved system where biodiversity is relatively high compared to less well-conserved systems. Therefore, there is the importance of detecting physical, chemical, and/or biological signals that reflect early changes in certain wild populations, thus allowing...

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