Cosmocercoides meridionalis n. sp. is described from the large and small intestines of 5 species of tree frogs belonging to the families Hylidae and Phyllomedusidae collected from 2 localities in Southern Amazonia. The new species is allocated to the genus Cosmocercoides Wilkie, 1930, due to the presence of papillae in rosettes, which are complex caudal papillae surrounded by punctuations. Cosmocercoides meridionalis n. sp. differs from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: the absence of the gubernaculum, the total length of the female (twice the size of the male), and the presence of 26 rosette papillae with a unique arrangement and distribution pattern: 11 pre-cloacal pairs, 1 ad-cloacal pair, and 1 post-cloacal pair. This is the first species of the genus described from the Amazonia region.