Herein we describe a new species and propose a new genus, Posthovitellinum psiloterminae n. gen., n. sp. (Lissorchiidae: Asymphylodorinae), based on specimens that infect the intestine of Cyclocheilos enoplos (Bleeker, 1849) (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), a migratory riverine carp from the Mekong River (Dong Thap province, Vietnam). The new species is assigned to Lissorchiidae by having a combination of features: spinous tegument, subterminal oral sucker, pre-equatorial ventral sucker, median and pretesticular ovary, submarginal genital pore at level of the ventral sucker, follicular vitellarium distributing in 2 lateral fields, and lacking eyespot pigment in the adult. It cannot be assigned to any existing asymphylodorine genus because it has the combination of a well-developed cirrus-sac, an unarmed ejaculatory duct and metraterm, a follicular vitellarium distributing in 2 lateral fields located between the posterior margin of the ventral sucker and the mid-level of the testis, and a sinistral, submarginal genital pore. The new species has an elongate, claviform cirrus-sac, a single, large, elongate-oval testis at the posterior extremity of the body, operculate eggs, and an I-shaped excretory bladder with secondary branches at the level of the testis and extending anteriad to the level of the pharynx. Bayesian inference analysis of the partial large subunit ribosomal DNA gene (28S rDNA) recovered the new species sister to Asaccotrema vietnamienseSokolov and Gordeev, 2019; these species differed by 118 nucleotides (12%; 983 bp fragment). This is the first lissorchiid reported from the Mekong River; only the second from southern Vietnam; and the fourth reported from a cyprinid fish in Vietnam. The aforementioned phylogenetic analysis included previously unpublished sequences representing lissorchiids infecting the intestine of North American suckers (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae): Lissorchis cf. nelsoni from spotted sucker; Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque, 1820) and Lissorchis cf. gullaris (immature) from smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque, 1818). Asymphylodora atherinopsidisAnnereaux, 1947, herein is treated as a species incertae sedis. The 28S tree topology suggests that Lissorchiinae may comprise more than 1 lineage, but additional species are needed to confidently assert this.

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