There has been a growing interest in characterizing the parasite faunas of species populations as they expand their geographical ranges as a result of climate change. Expanded-range populations often exhibit lower parasite diversity than historical-range populations, and reduced parasitism may, in part, be attributable to expanded-range populations escaping their native range parasites. The present study compares the helminth faunas of green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) from 4 historical and 4 expanded-range populations to determine whether these latter populations have undergone parasite escape. Results of this study found relatively high degrees of similarity in species composition among helminth assemblages within historical or within range-expansion locations, with marked differences in the composition of helminth faunas between historical and expanded-range populations of these frogs. Because green treefrogs from expanded-range locations exhibited significant decreases in helminth species diversity compared with those from historical sites, they appear to be escaping levels of parasitism typically experienced by these frogs in their native range. Most notably, there was a decrease in the abundance of helminths with direct life cycles and the absence of trematode assemblages with indirect life cycles among expanded-range populations of H. cinerea. The low prevalence of trematode assemblages among historical populations of green treefrogs could limit these parasites' ability to be introduced and propagated in expanded-range locations. However, the lack of trematode assemblages among populations of H. cinerea in its expanded range may also be due to the absence or limited availability of other aquatic hosts that are required to complete the life cycles of these parasites. The reduction in helminth diversity among expanded-range populations of green treefrogs lends some credence to the notion that individuals at the front of a range expansion often invest less energy in reproduction and in doing so allocate more energy to dispersal and other life-history traits, including resistance to parasites. There may, however, be other explanations for differences in parasite species diversity between historical and expanded-range populations of H. cinerea. Because many of the helminths reported from this study are host generalists of amphibians whose recruitment and transmission among intermediate and paratenic hosts are known to be constrained by water and/or soil moisture conditions, we cannot ignore the role of both local amphibian diversity and local abiotic factors in influencing helminth diversity between the 2 population types of green treefrogs. These latter factors would decrease the role of parasite escape or energy trade-offs in driving helminth diversity among populations of H. cinerea and instead would suggest that local conditions play a more prominent role in structuring their helminth communities.

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