The Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886 is a large family of digeneans within the superfamily Diplostomoidea Poirier, 1886. Members of the family are distributed worldwide and parasitize a diversity of tetrapod definitive hosts. Notably, only 2 mature diplostomids are known from crocodilians and both are suggested to be accidental infections. In this study, we use morphological and molecular data to describe Neofibricola n. gen. from a Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus collected in South Africa. We provide a description of adults and metacercariae of the type species, Neofibricola smiti n. sp., and metacercariae of a likely congeneric species. We generated partial 28S and internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 subunit mitochondrial DNA for both species and utilized the newly generated 28S sequences to examine phylogenetic affinities of these new taxa. In addition, we provide a new key to diplostomid genera, considering the substantial systematic changes and newly erected genera since the previously published key to diplostomid genera.

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