Turtle blood flukes (“spirorchiids”) comprise a paraphyletic assemblage including the monophyletic Schistosomatidae Stiles and Hassall, 1898 as a crown group. We herein morphologically diagnose the natural groups of turtle blood flukes and propose family names for them. Spirorchiidae Stunkard, 1921 (Spirorchis MacCallum, 1919 [type]; Spirhapalum Ejsmont, 1927; Plasmiorchis Mehra, 1934; MonticelliusMehra, 1939; VasotremaStunkard, 1928; provisionally UterotremaPlatt and Pichelin, 1994) has a ventral sucker (lost in Spirorchis), an esophageal gland surrounding the entire esophagus, lateral esophageal diverticula (plicate organ and medial esophageal diverticulum present or absent), a glandular mass at the esophagus base, paired ceca surrounded by vitelline follicles for their entire length, a non-filamented, ovoid egg, and typically a Manter's organ. Baracktrematidae n. fam. (Baracktrema Roberts, Platt, and Bullard, 2016 [type]; Unicaecum Stunkard, 1925; NeospirorchisPrice, 1934) has no ventral sucker, a single cecum or cyclocoel, a coiled or looped testis extending into the anterior body half, a convoluted post-cecal and post-gonadal uterus, a uterine pouch, no metraterm, no Manter's organ, and non-filamented eggs. Plattidae n. fam. (Platt Roberts and Bullard, 2018 [type]; Hapalorhynchus Stunkard, 1922; Coeuritrema Mehra, 1933; Enterohaematotrema Mehra, 1940; CardiotremaDwivedi, 1967; Ruavermis Dutton and Bullard, 2020) has the anatomical sequence of a ventral sucker, external seminal vesicle, cirrus sac, anterior testis, ovary, transverse vitelline duct, and posterior testis (except Enterohaematotrema) plus a pars prostatica, dorsal genital pore, globular excretory vesicle, and no Manter's organ. Carettacolidae Yamaguti, 1958 (CarettacolaManter and Larson, 1950 [type]) has a spinose oral sucker, a spinose and contractile ventral sucker (transverse cavity present), numerous testes distributing in a post-ovarian, inter-cecal column, and an ovary and transverse vitelline duct that are pre-testicular. Hapalotrematidae (Stunkard, 1921) Poche, 1926 (Hapalotrema Loos, 1899 [type]; AmphiorchisPrice, 1934; LearediusPrice, 1934; Cheloneotrema Simha and Chattopadhyaya, 1980; NeocaballerotremaSimha, 1977; Satyanarayanotrema Simha and Chattopadhyaya, 1980; Shobanotrema Simha and Chattopadhyaya, 1980) has the anatomical sequence of a ventral sucker, anterior testis(es), external seminal vesicle and cirrus sac, ovary, and posterior testis(es). Atamatamidae n. fam. (Atamatam Bullard and Roberts, 2019 [type]; Paratamatam Bullard and Roberts, 2019; Pitiutrema Dutton and Bullard, 2019) has an oral sucker with anteroventral spines, vasa efferentia connecting to a pre-ovarian external seminal vesicle, a cirrus sac directed postero-laterad and having an internal seminal vesicle and glandular luminal wall, and a dendritic ovary flanked by the external seminal vesicle and oviducal seminal receptacle. A 28S phylogenetic analysis failed to reject the monophyly of these families.

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