Cytauxzoon felis is a tick-transmitted intraerythrocytic apicomplexan infecting felids in the southeastern and midwestern United States. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are the natural wildlife reservoir of C. felis, where in enzootic areas prevalence can reach 100%. Domestic cats can be subclinically infected with C. felis or can develop cytauxzoonosis. Two studies have documented the presence of C. felis in domestic cats in Illinois; these studies have shown a limited number of cases submitted to specialty labs. During 2014–2018, we obtained blood samples collected by veterinary staff from 514 cats that were apparently healthy and 74 cats that were suspected of cytauxzoonosis. These samples were screened using a sensitive, nested PCR to detect the presence of C. felis DNA. We herein document frequent occurrences of cytauxzoonosis (8–15 cases/year from 4 veterinary clinics) and 12.5% prevalence of subclinical infections in southern Illinois, a locality showing a sharp increase in cases of cytauxzoonosis. Our results suggest a high risk of cytauxzoonosis in southern Illinois, despite only recently being recognized in the area. We found no specific risk factors for cytauxzoonosis or subclinical infections in this location. In addition, cases of cytauxzoonosis occur every month of the year (with the highest frequency in summer) and therefore tick prevention should be used in domestic cats in enzootic regions throughout the year.

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