This study examined the population structure of head and body lice infesting a random sample of people in Pokhara, Nepal during 2003, 2004, and 2005. A total of 106 participants (6 to 72 yr old, median = 12) volunteered to have lice collected from their heads and clothing. Most participants (70%) harbored only head lice, some (15%) had only body lice, and some (15%) had concurrent infestations of head and body lice (dual infestations). A total of 1,472 lice was collected. Significantly more nymphs were collected than adult lice. Louse populations were generally small (geometric mean = 8.8 lice per person) but a few participants harbored larger louse populations (maximum = 65 lice). People with dual infestations harbored significantly more lice than people with single infestations; however, there was no difference in the infestation intensities between people infested with head lice only vs. those infested with body lice only. Male participants harbored significantly more lice than did females. There were no significant differences in infestation intensity due to participant age or their socioeconomic level. The sex ratio of adult lice was increasingly female biased with increasing adult louse density. Infection of lice with Bartonella quintana was low (ca. 1.5%). Pediculosis is a common problem in urban Nepal.

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