During May 2022 and again in March 2023, 5 quillbacks, Carpiodes cyprinus, were collected from the Verdigris River, Wagoner County, Oklahoma (n = 1), and the Black River, Lawrence County, Arkansas (n = 4), and their gill, gallbladder, fins, integument, musculature, and other major organs were macroscopically examined for myxozoans. Gill lamellae from the single quillback from the Verdigris River was infected with a new myxozoan, Thelohanellus oklahomaensis n. sp. Qualitative and quantitative morphological data were obtained from fresh and formalin-fixed preserved myxospores, and molecular data consisted of a 1,767 base pair sequence of the partial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis grouped T. oklahomaensis n. sp. with myxozoans known to infect North American catostomids and Eurasian cyprinids. Histological examination localized plasmodia to an intralamellar developmental site and revealed a possible vestige of a second polar capsule. Although plasmodia markedly expanded lamellae, there were no associated epithelial or inflammatory changes. Thelohanellus oklahomaensis n. sp. is the only member of the genus known to infect the gills of C. cyprinus.