This study documents the presence of anti–Neospora caninum antibodies and their association with certain risk factors in 2 deer species from the central region of Veracruz State, Mexico. A total of 90 blood samples, 20 from temazate deer (Mazama temama) and 70 from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were taken from 3 farms, and serum samples were subjected to ELISA indirect test to detect N. caninum antibodies; the association between the serological status and the possible risk factors was then estimated. The overall presence of anti–N. caninum antibodies was 57.7% (52/90; 95% CI 46.9–67.9), with positive animals identified on all farms; in white-tailed deer it was 57% and in temazate deer 60%. Prevalence was higher in females than males. Adult animals had a higher prevalence than young ones. The risk analysis identified the age in the adult animal category (odds ratio 5.8) as being associated with the presence of anti–N. caninum antibodies. These results provide evidence of the significant contamination of oocysts in the environment and allow us to estimate the contribution of deer to the sylvatic cycle.

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