Herein, we provide a supplemental description of Caballerotrema annulatum (Diesing, 1850) Ostrowski de Núñez and Sattmann, 2002 (Digenea: Caballerotrematidae Tkach, Kudlai, and Kostadinova, 2016) based on specimens collected from the intestine of an electric eel, Electrophorus cf. varii (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) captured in the Amazon River (Colombia). This caballerotrematid can be differentiated from its congeners by the following combination of morphological features: body surface spines forming contiguous transverse rows, concentric (wrapping dorso-ventrally around body), distributing into posterior body half (vs. restricted to anterior body half in Caballerotrema brasiliensePrudhoe, 1960; indeterminate for Caballerotrema aruanenseThatcher, 1980 and Caballerotrema piscicola [Stunkard, 1960] Kostadinova and Gibson, 2001); head collar lacking projections (vs. having them in C. brasiliense, C. aruanense, and C. piscicola), narrow (head collar more narrow than maximum body width vs. the head collar being obviously wider than the body in C. brasiliense, C. aruanense, and C. piscicola); corner spines clustered (vs. corner spines distributing as 2 separated pairs in C. brasiliense, C. aruanense, and C. piscicola); pharynx approximately at level of the corner spines (vs. pharynx far anterior to corner spines in C. brasiliense, C. aruanense, and C. piscicola); and testes ovoid and nonoverlapping (C. aruanense; vs. sinuous and overlapping in C. brasiliense and C. piscicola). Based on our results, we revise the diagnosis of CaballerotremaPrudhoe, 1960 to include features associated with the shape and distribution of body surface spines, orientation and position of head collar spines, cirrus sac, seminal vesicle, oviduct, Laurer’s canal, oötype, vitellarium, and transverse vitelline ducts. We performed Bayesian inference analyses using the partial large subunit ribosomal (28S) DNA gene. Our 28S sequence of C. annulatum was recovered sister to that of Caballerotrema sp. (which is the only other caballerotrematid sequence available in GenBank) from an arapaima, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae) in the Peruvian Amazon. Our sequence of C. annulatum comprises the only caballerotrematid sequenced tethered to a morphological description and a voucher specimen in a lending museum. The present study is a new host record and new locality record for C. annulatum. The phylogeny comprises the most resolved and taxon-rich evolutionary hypothesis for Echinostomatoidea published to date.

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