The monospecific Lamanema historically has been assigned to the Nematodirinae within the Molineidae. Inconsistencies in morphological characters, within a phylogenetic context for Nematodirinae, led to a re-evaluation of the putative relationships and taxonomic placement of Lamanema. Among 7 putative synapomorphies for Nematodirinae, Lamanema possesses only 1, large eggs. Large eggs, sporadically present in phylogenetically disparate taxa of trichostrongyles, are equivocal with respect to placement of Lamanema; it is considered that possession of this single homoplasious character alone is insufficient justification to retain the genus in Nematodirinae. Affinities with the Trichostrongylidae (Cooperiinae or Haemonchinae) have also been proposed; however, Lamanema possess neither of 2 synapomorphies that diagnose monophyly of the family. Lamanema is retained in the Molineidae and transferred to the Molineinae as it possesses all characters of the family as currently defined. The origin of Lamanema represents a secondary colonization of ruminants by molineids and provides no context for elucidating the history of the Nematodirinae and Nematodirus.
Reassignment of Lamanema from Nematodirinae to Molineinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea)
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Lora G. Rickard, Eric P. Hoberg; Reassignment of Lamanema from Nematodirinae to Molineinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea). J Parasitol 1 June 2000; 86 (3): 647–650. doi: https://doi.org/10.1645/0022-3395(2000)086[0647:ROLFNT]2.0.CO;2
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