Some parasites have been shown to manipulate host behavior so that parasite transmission to the next host is enhanced. Infection with Triaenophorus crassus Forel (Cestoda) caused alterations in the activity and microhabitat selection of the first intermediate host Cyclops strenuus Fischer (Copepoda) in the laboratory. Infected copepods made more starts to swim but spent less time swimming than uninfected copepods. These changes were independent of the intensity of infection. In a water column illuminated from above, infected copepods approached the surface, whereas uninfected ones remained close to the bottom. In the dark both infected and uninfected copepods stayed near the bottom. Finally, infection with T. crassus increased the probability of C. strenuus being eaten by the second intermediate host, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L. s.l.), in the laboratory. In experimental infections, 10-day-old procercoids had significantly lower infectivity for whitefish than older (12-, 14-, and 21-day-old) procercoids. Behavioral changes were detected in infected copepods containing procercoids 12 days old or older but not in experiments with 10-day-old procercoids. These results may indicate that T. crassus changes the behavior of the copepod host only after it has become infective to the next host, which is consistent with the active manipulation hypothesis.

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