A new species of Tylocephalum is described from the spiral intestine of the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus taken off Venezuela. Tylocephalum brooksi n. sp. is the third species described parasitizing this host species, along with T. pingue and T. bonasum. T. brooksi is similar to congeners in the possession of a scolex with a fungiform pars apicalis, craspedote segmentation, circummedullary vitellarium, external seminal vesicle, bilobed ovary, and medioventral uterus. However, this species differs from all previously described species of Tylocephalum in having a collar around the base of the pars apicalis densely covered by large digitiform processes (microtriches?), and an internal seminal vesicle. The internal seminal vesicle is a feature currently used to differentiate Tetragonocephalum from Tylocephalum. Its presence in T. brooksi indicates that it should be considered a specific instead of a generic character. An emended diagnosis of Tylocephalum is proposed excluding this feature, along with distribution of the testes in the preovarian field and circummedullary distribution of vitelline follicles. Species of Tylocephalum and Tetragonocephalum are reviewed on the basis of original descriptions, and 2 distinct morphological groups of species defined. Species of the Tetragonocephalum group possess a combination of an acraspedote strobila, segments much longer than wide, testes limited to the region anterior to the cirrus sac, vitellarium of lateral bands, conspicuously enlarged genital atrium and pore, cirrus sac dorsal to genital atrium, and bisaccate uterus. Species of the Tylocephalum group differ from Tetragonocephalum in possession of a craspedote strobila, segments more quadrangular, testes distributed throughout the preovarian field, inconspicuous genital atrium, uniformly saccate uterus, cirrus sac lateral to genital atrium, and probable circummedullary vitellaria in all species.

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